Excerpts from:

Motivating Different People

A self-training course on determining personalities and customizing your approach to each person.

When you drive into a city you haven't visited before, it is easier to find your way to your destination if you have a good city map. When you have to motivate a person you haven't met before, it is easier to get to your goal if you can first draw a mental "map" of his/her personality type. The "map" will show you how to motivate that particular person.

You can train yourself to draw such a "personality map" mentally, using our self-training course, Motivating Different People.

It comes in a Self-training Book. To do its exercises will take a small part of your time during anywhere from five weeks to five months, depending on how much you practice on people you meet anyway.

Our course gives you a new way to use the Jung and Myers-Briggs scales explained only briefly in these excerpts, more thoroughly in the course.

Your course will show, for example, how you can motivate your suppliers when you are purchasing, how you can motivate a person to pay more attention to the customers, or move to another position in your company, etc.

Our "map" becomes particularly useful when you need to predict which personality will fit best into a specific job, working with an existing team.

What is management? It is accomplishing productive work through others. You do that through motivating them. But different personality types are motivated in very different ways.

You will know how to motivate each person after having determined his or her personality type.

For the first time ever, here is a course dedicated to busy line managers, showing them how to determine personality types reliably without testing.

© 1999 IMACONSULT SA, Brussels. Copyright. All rights reserved, except that these excerpts, only, may be copied for internal corporate use, provided credits are shown clearly.

The four scales

Here is the first scale:
E = Extrovert
Introvert = I

A person can be anywhere on this scale from

extreme E    through          ambivert to                           extreme I

No place is better or worse. They are just different. Most persons actually have some behaviors from both sides of each scale. Surprisingly few persons are in the 10% of the scale closest to the midpoint. The same is true for all four scales.

On the above scale, a per-
son anywhere to the left of
the mid-point, is labeled E.

A person located anywhere
to the right of the mid-point
is labeled I.
Eight letters, including E and I, and eight words, including "Extrovert" and "Introvert" will have more precise meanings here than in daily speech. I will capitalize the eight words when they have the special meanings. These special meanings will now be explained in four tables and four examples.
Extrovert persons tend to reach
decisions through discussions with others. 

Extroverts may express several 
different viewpoints, just to shape a 
better understanding through discussion.

Introvert persons tend to reach decisions by thinking through all aspects alone.

Introverts call others mainly to get
additional information.

Extroverts relate to others.
Introverts relate to their own ideas and thoughts.
Extroverts talk.
Introverts contemplate.
Extroverts "recharge their batteries" through interaction with others.
Introverts "recharge their batteries" through solitary, or nearly solitary, activities.
It is not sufficient for Extroverts to do a good job. They need, in addition, that people tell them that they did a good job. Compliment them!
Introverts are often self-sufficient, thus for example, attuned to doing their e-mail, faxes and computer work on long business trips alone.

E — I  Example

Ernie, Vice President for Sales, and Ivor, his International Sales Manager, were on one of their many international trips and had just finished an unusually exhausting working day in Frankfurt. As they were stepping into the elevator at 5.30 PM, their German lawyer also stepped in. He mentioned that a few neighbors of his were coming to his home for dinner at 7.30. Would Ernie and Ivor like to join them?

Ernie, an E, jumped at the invitation and Ivor, an I, declined, regretting that he was too tired after their hard day.

"I am so tired," Ivor thought silently to himself. "It will be wonderful to just take a little walk alone, have a simple meal alone and go to bed early."

Let's now listen to what his boss blurted out to the lawyer:

"I am so tired," Ernie said, "it will be wonderful to relax and chat with your neighbors, so I can become a human being again."

Ernie, an E, Extrovert, recharges his batteries through interchange with others, whereas Ivor, an I, Introvert, gets re-energized by kicking off his shoes in the hotel room and being alone with his own thoughts.

To understand the text in the later part of these excerpts, you will have to memorize what E and I stand for, and six other letters that follow.

Here is the second scale:
S = S-person
N-person = N
S-persons* focus on concrete, practical facts and details.
N-persons* focus on theories and
holistic concepts.
S-persons consider mainly the past and present facts.
N-persons consider mainly the future possibilities.
S-persons execute all the details of the work.
N-persons create the business to be done.
S-persons are often stabilizers.
N-persons are often changers.
S-persons are dependable in following precise, detailed instructions, e.g., in aircraft maintenance or bookkeeping.
They are observant.
N-persons are often curious and learners. They often bring new ideas.

N-persons are likely to try new ways of doing things. For that reason, you would never put an extreme N-person to do, e.g., aircraft maintenance. It might be unsafe. 
He or she would also hate the routine.

* Unfortunately, no good descriptive words exist for S and N. The table above defines what the two letters mean. Just use the letters as if they were new words.


Notes to the 'type community:'
This is written for busy managers, so I use on purpose S and N rather than the misleading Sensors and iNtuitives. The spelling, 'extrovert' is predominant in management.
To be understood by businessmen, I call written and computerized questionnaires for determining personality type "tests," though they are called indicators in the type community.
To keep the text sufficiently short for executives, I simplify some subjects that are more complex than shown here, and I skip all the tedious exceptions and justifications that a research paper would require.


At work, nearly all N-persons are able to function in the S-mode when necessary, at least when absolutely necessary. But few S-persons, practically no extreme S-persons, that is persons at the extreme left of the above scale, can function in the N-mode, because they don’t know what it is.

S — N  Example

600 years ago, a monk walked around one of Europe’s big church construction sites and asked each one of the stone masons what he did.

The first one said: "I cut stones."

The second one said: "I carry stones."

The third one said: "I shape stones."

The fourth one said: "I build a cathedral."

Was the last stone mason an S-person or an N-person?
T = Thinker
Feeler = F
Thinkers give preference to objective theory and logical reasons when making decisions.
Feelers give preference to human needs and harmony when making decisions.
Thinkers are detached,
express objective views.
Feelers are involved,
express subjective views.
Thinkers consider other people's reasoning.
Feelers consider other people's emotions.
Sometimes considered too cold.
Sometimes considered too sensitive.
Want intellectual achievements.
Want to be appreciated.

All persons both think and feel; but most persons give preference to either their thinking or their feeling function when making decisions.

In business, Fs, Feelers, usually have much better people-skills and better contact with others. Contrary to what most people think, the T — F scale is a better indicator of solid people-skills than the E — I scale.

In my executive search for persons to work in marketing, sales and personnel, clients usually ask us to find managers with excellent people-skills, thus Fs. But that conflicts with getting managers who consider legal rights and logical reasons in a detached way. So, in cases when deep-rooted people-skills are unusually important to a management job, I prefer persons to the right of the mid-point of this scale, though never at the extreme right.

For most managers, I prefer Ts, though rarely extreme Ts.

These preferences, and similar comments later, assume "everything else being equal," which it of course never is. Scales other than these four are usually more important in executive search.

The following example will show how differently one should approach a T and an F:

George has two bosses. His Vice-President, Corporate Marketing is Tom. His Business Unit Manager is Francine. Next Thursday is a holiday and George would like to take Friday off, so he can spend a long weekend with his family at their cottage. On the other hand, the company does need some managers present on such a day.

George pops in to Tom, a T, Thinker, saying: "I haven't yet got to study the proposals of the different advertising agencies. I'd like to go away and concentrate on it for a couple of hours on Friday at my cottage instead of here, where I am interrupted all the time."

George is well aware that the same argument will not work with Francine, an F, Feeler. George says instead to her: "I have been traveling so much this month, without seeing my wife and kids, so would you mind if I just take Friday off and spend a long weekend with them at our cottage?"

Both approaches worked fine, because they were tailored to each personality type. George "pushed the hot button" for each person.

We'll return to George and his two bosses in the example for the next scale.
J = Judger
Perceiver = P
Judgers, tend to "judge" each matter as quickly as they can, so that they can get ready to concentrate on the next matter.
Perceivers tend to "see what happens." They later "perceive" new factors, and decide only when it becomes necessary.
Judgers tend to stick with their decisions.
Many Judgers find it hard to adapt 
to changing situations.
Perceivers reverse their decisions easily, when they "perceive" changed circumstances. They adapt easily to changing situations.
Judgers work on one matter 
at a time, then switch to the next matter.
Perceivers are often appreciated for their ability to handle many matters concurrently. We call persons with that ability
"broad bandwidth managers."
Judgers are organized. 
Typically they first make a plan, 
then follow the plan. 
Perceivers often jump into a job spontaneously, then do whatever they "perceive" as becoming necessary, as they go along. A plan tends to cramp them and take all the fun out of their work. 
In the 1960s, 70s and 80s, large corporations appreciated the decisiveness of Judgers, especially the combination TJ, Thinkers-Judgers. They arrive on time and finish their work on schedule.

Many TJs get a lot done.

For persons who are –STJ, you can expect no major problems in their wake; but rarely any sparks of creativity either.

In today’s fast-changing world,
I find more and more Perceivers among the most successful entrepreneurs. They may well "drive crazy" the Judgers who report to them.

If extreme Perceivers are also extreme N-persons, they "leave loose ends dangling." Only if they provide outstanding results will they be excused. Some extreme N + Ps are very gifted managers. Always provide a permanent J assistant to "clean up" after an extreme N + P manager.

Extreme Js tend to take snap decisions.
Extreme Ps tend to procrastinate.

For jobs in which timeliness is very important, I often prefer Js. On the other hand, in many top management positions, Ps seem more at ease with the great multitude of matters flowing around them at all times.

Sometimes I have to ensure that the new manager coming into a company fits with the existing team in the J — P respect. At other times, if the entire top management team is J, a new P manager, functioning the opposite way, can add complementary work habits and improve results of the team. But then I must prepare the existing team for the very upsetting differences it will experience with the new manager.

J — P  Example

George had determined a year ago that his corporate level boss, Tom is a J, whereas his business unit boss, Francine, is a P. From that, George had concluded that Francine would be considering now and then over a long period of time the matter of George's salary raise, whereas Tom would resent being bothered with it at all before the scheduled date in December.

So, during the year, whenever George landed a big contract for the Company, he also mentioned, half-jokingly, to Francine (P) that it will be worth a good raise in December.

On the date in December planned for salary discussion, George walked into Tom's office, closed the door and put in front of Tom (J) a single sheet listing the big contracts George had landed during the year. The value of each one was shown in the right hand column. The total was added up near the bottom. Below that, George had written his current annual salary.

After Tom had looked it over, George mentioned salary for the first time to Tom, saying: "Tom, tell me right now: what salary do you think I should have next year?" Three minutes later, George left the office after Tom had promised him to discuss with Francine the salary figure George wanted.

Thus, each one of George's bosses got to process the information in the way he or she preferred. Their decision was favorable. The same approach to the opposite person would have irritated both.

"Personality Types"

The eight letters, thus the eight half-scales, can be combined in sixteen ways. Each 4-letter combination, e.g., ENTJ, is the name of one of the 16 Personality Types, in this case, an Extrovert N-person, T for Thinker and J for Judger.

Maintain this order of the four scales:

E -----------------------|-------------------------I

S -----------------------|------------------------ N

T -----------------------|------------------------ F

J ------------------------|------------------------ P

In a four-letter description of a Personality Type, the first letter is always E or I, the second letter is always S or N, and so forth. When you don't know, use a dash.

Example: in EN–J, the dash indicates that you have not yet determined whether the person is T or F. If you only know that a lady is a J, you can write her Personality Type as – – –J, until you find out more. If you always maintain the same order among the four scales, your mental "map" of persons will be orderly, rather than messy.

Personality Type will be capitalized here when it refers to the four scales.

Beyond the four scales

Of course there are many other important characteristics beyond these four scales: energy level, honesty, generosity, assertiveness, sense of humor, just to mention a few.

In executive searches, I consider some 80 – 100 professional and personal traits, habits, skills, experiences and abilities. Many of them are much more important to success in the job than the personality preferences described here. I rate the other qualities on scales in my IMAGRAPH charts, described in the leaflet, IMAGRAPH Selection.

Yet, the four scales in the course, Motivating Different People give you the most useful framework toward understanding why people behave so differently and how to motivate each Personality Type.

The systematic training course will enable you to determine, without testing, where each person is on the four scales.

Two examples: motivating two persons to buy

The meanings of the bold blue letters below are explained in the preceding text. Please read that first.

Here follow only two examples of part of what you will learn in the training course:

Suppose that you wish to sell a big machine to a production manager, a woman you have figured out to be of the ISFP Personality Type.

Since she is I for Introvert, you will start by sending her a written, thorough proposal; but state in it, that you will give her the necessary additional explanation in her office. For anything you plan to say there, and for anything she might ask you there, take along ample back-up information in writing, so you can hand it to her.

Since she is an S-person, you will ensure that everything is described, down to the smallest, concrete detail. If you can bring photosof the machine and samplesof products made by the machine, so much the better. Anything concrete that she can touch, feel or see will enhance your chances of convincing an S-person.

Since she is an F for Feeler, you will describe her feelings after having the machine in her factory: how confident she will be that it is safe, guaranteed, working unattended month after month, producing thousands of error-free widgets or whatever. "Paint" her a mental picture of her happiness, and the happiness of other specific persons in her company.

Even though you know that she is a P for Perceiver, you of course still try to get the order on your first visit; but you are not discouraged if you don’t get it then. You find out, however, before departing from the first visit, all additional data she will need to give you the order. After she has told you that, you ask whether she will give you the order once you have provided that information to her satisfaction. Also set a closing date for validity of your offer, or she may drag it out for a long time, since she is a P.

Assume for a moment the worst case: she says no.

If there is no strong reason behind the "no," you will of course continue to try, on other occasions, to get her to reverse her decision. You may well succeed, because Ps often change their minds.

In the meantime, let’s assume that you try to sell the same big machine in another company to a man whom you have figured out to have the completely opposite Personality Type: ENTJ.

Since he is E for Extrovert, you talk it over with him in person, rather than send a proposal.

Since he is an N-person, you describe briefly the over-all idea or benefit of the machine – no details!

Since he is a T for Thinker, you answer his questions with brief, logical facts.

Since he is a J for Judger, you have only a few minutes to do the whole thing, before he will decide firmly for or against. You have to keep it brief and to-the-point.

Let’s assume that he decides against buying it.

When I learned selling, I was taught never to take "no" for an answer. But if your customer is an extreme J, you will waste your time once he has decided not to buy. Find another customer instead!

Above, I chose two opposite Personality Types to describe how to motivate a person having any of the eight letters. With that information and the course Motivating Different People, you yourself will become able to put together, in a different order, the approach to follow to motivate anyone of all sixteen Personality Types.

During the self-training course, you will also become able to figure out how to do other types of motivation than those in a sales situation, for example in purchasing or other situations.

You will also learn, e.g., how to motivate a person to work better, to pay more attention to the customers or move to another position in your company.

Some adapt intuitively to the personalities of the people they have to motivate. Sometimes that succeeds and sometimes not. This training course systematizes the process into a linear, proven method that everyone can use with consistent results.

Some of the 16 Personality Types

Instead of memorizing many Personality Types, it is easier to deduce them from the descriptions of the four scales in the first four tables.

The remainder of this leaflet assumes that you have internalized the meanings of all eight letters. If not, please review them.

ISFP Personality Type

Let’s now assume that you have just sold the machine to the ISFP lady described earlier. What are you likely to notice about her? Well, from the self-training course, you can become able to figure it out, yourself. Let me just show the result:

As an ISFP, the lady is probably rather quiet, not forceful. She is nice and gentle as a person. She is probably paying attention to great amounts of details without commenting on them. She is probably a good, cooperative team player, kind to her colleagues and keenly aware of their needs.

She strikes some persons as being too kind, unassuming and indecisive to have risen to a corporate management position. Few ISFPs do. Hardly any get to upper management. ISFP is one of the two least common Personality Types in upper management.

You will find that other ISFPs you run into behave amazingly similarly.

ENTJ Personality Type

What about the man who didn’t buy your machine? How is he as a person?

ENTJ is an unusual combination of preferences in the general population, but quite common among corporate managers. Many ENTJs are eager to climb the corporate ladder and good at some management jobs. (The jobs they are not good at require a lot of solo travel or attention to a great multitude of details.)

An ENTJ is outspoken, assertive, confident, probably creative. This is a person who goes his own way, usually in a hurry. He will listen briefly, if he considers it useful; but he will speak far more than listen.

ESTJ Personality Type

Only one letter differentiates this from the previous one; but each change of a letter gives major and fundamental differences in Personality Type and behavior.

An ESTJ is chatty; but, contrary to ENTJ, down-to-earth. He considers facts in the past and present; but he has rarely, if ever, creative ideas about the future. ESTJs are often useful, dependable workhorses in companies’ bokkeeping or other administrative positions.

Although over 20%* of persons in middle and upper management are ESTJs, they are rarely in creative positions. ESTJs are rarely changers but administrators of the status quo.

ESTJs can be a disaster if placed in research, marketing or top management (contrary to many ENTJs).

Although both ENTJs and ESTJs are outgoing and communicative, neither have deep people-skills. You need Fs, Feelers, for that. This brings us to the next Personality Type.
* The course provides sources for such percentages and several literature references.

ESFJ Personality Type

Again, only one letter is different from the previous Personality Type; but ESFJs are sociable, warm, people-oriented, great participants at a party. You run into them often in the total population, where they constitute just under 1 in 5. They constitute an even larger percentage in sales and in positions providing service to others. They are extremely rare in upper corporate management.

ISFJ Personality Type

Once again, only one letter differs from the previous Personality Type, yet you will find this one very different, even at the first minute of contact. ISFJs are unassuming, good workers, good listeners. They have good people-skills, and yet they are not as much in management as you would expect from these good qualities, only 1 - 2% of managers. ISFJs don’t seek the limelight, and they are not given it.

ISTJ Personality Type

Although only one letter distinguishes this Personality Type from the preceding one, this is one of the two most prevalent Personality Types in upper corporate management. Over 20% of upper management, are ISTJs.

ISTJs concentrate on facts. They are organized and decisive, accurate, and have jobs ready on time. You can depend on them. They accomplish what they set out to do. They are rarely creative. They ensure that all details are handled in the work. Many of them seem a bit square, though. You rarely choose them as participants on an enjoyable picnic.

ESTP Personality Type

The ESTPs are fun to have along on a picnic. They are outgoing, talkative, practical, logical, spontaneous, active, quick-changing, enjoying the here and now. They love to start things; but don’t expect them to finish lots of desk drudgery. They are sometimes temporary, turn-around managers, but rarely in long-term upper corporate management in traditional industry. More than 1 in 10 of the total population are ESTPs.

ESFP Personality Type

There are some similarities between ESFPs and the ISFP-lady who bought your machine, except that ESFPs are extrovert, outgoing and talkative.

An ESFP shares with the lady an attention to detail, a down-to-earth-attitude, good people-skills, spontaneity, and a tendency not to decide anything until necessary. ESFPs easily handle several matters concurrently. They are often found in sales positions, and they enjoy such work. Some of them are so good at sales that they are promoted to management positions. This is a mistake, because they usually fail in management, where more conceptualizing of ideas, more focus on the future, and more decisiveness are required.

About - -TJs, Thinkers Judgers

ISTJ, ESTJ, INTJ and ENTJ represent over 70% of all corporate managers and over 85% of all executives, so let's consider what is common for the four. You notice that the list includes all the - -TJs among the sixteen Personality Types.

After the four - -TJs, and way behind them, nearly only ENTPs, and INTPs have cracked open slightly the door to upper management. All the other ten Personality Types constitute only an insignificant percentage of upper management.

Do not conclude from this that - -TJs are the best managers. In my opinion, - -TJs are not necessarily best; but they are the ones who usually climb and are invited to climb the corporate ladder. Others can be equally capable managers.

The president of one of my most successful client companies is not a - -TJ. He is an ENTP. He did not become president through climbing a ladder, but through starting his own company. That company grew profitably by leaps and bounds thanks to his dedication and skills, and the skills of the capable people he hired. Executive recruiters found some of them.

Similarly, as stated earlier, I have no hesitation to recommend an F, Feeler, instead of a T, Thinker, for an upper management position requiring unusually deep people-skills. I have never recommended an extreme F, though.

There are of course some outstanding managers who are not - -TJs, yet have risen through the ranks to top positions; but they are rare exceptions. One of them is the CEO of Boeing, Philip Condit, an INFP.

There seems to be no significant difference among countries regarding which Personality Types most frequently rise to upper management, except for some variations in the preference for Js.

I noticed that even in the Soviet Union and its satellites, during Communist times, the same Personality Types as in the U.S. rose to the top in the management of industries. The same Personality Types climbed the ladder whether it was a communist or a free-enterprise ladder.

- -TJs are often in a hurry. Not because they are late – on the contrary: they seem always to be on time. They are in a hurry because they try to do more in less time.

The - -TJs are results-oriented, goal-oriented, both for themselves and for their companies.

Many of them are self-assured. Most of them are independent-minded and "go their own way." They are not easily pushed around.

- -TJs also have a tendency to take charge and tell everybody else what to do.

Most of the E–TJs are quite assertive.

- -TJs are often impatient. The –NTJs suffer long-winded people badly.

Many persons are ambitious; but in addition, - -TJs are also willing to pay the price for advancing, so most of them work hard. They see to it that they get the qualifications, knowledge and experience to climb the corporate ladder.

Nearly all the time, - -TJs seem to have something to do, an agenda. When a - -TJ arrives at a cocktail party, he might want to see Mr. Siworsky about the new widget design and Mr. Jones about the production schedule. Then Mrs. Smith about an introduction to Mr. Berckmans and then look around to see what else can be accomplished. (If he is an I–TJ, he might well be leaving for the airport or something else an hour before the end of the party.)

Just as the T and the J interact with each other in all - -TJs, you will find that all four letters interact with each other in each Personality Type and give, for example, all INTJs many additional common qualities other than those indicated by I + N + T + J.

Choosing persons for positions,
just a few words

Like all work in assessment prior to recruitment, personality type determination must be done carefully; but you can do it openly and get a lot of help from the candidates themselves.

All places on the four scales are equally good. Each human being is equally valuable. Those two maxims do not conflict with saying that for a position in welding you choose a person who can weld and for a position in management, you choose a person who can manage.

I have used strong words against promoting an excellent ESFP or ESFJ salesman to a sales management position. I have seen several such promotions fail with tragic consequences, both for the companies and for the promoted salesmen struggling to do work they were not equipped to handle.

Most of the examples in the next table are intended to be far less categorical. Several of them have many successful exceptions.

Of course, the recommended Personality Type never ensures success, since many other qualifications influence results far more than these four scales.

Each recommended Personality Type in the next table will be written with four symbols/letters. If the first one of the four is a dash, (–) it will mean, in this table, that the E — I scale is irrelevant for the example. A dash, (–) in the second location will mean that the S — N scale is not being considered. And so forth.

Thus, if only J or P are relevant, these Personality Types are shown as – – – J or as – – – P.

Read the table below as just hints toward what might be desirable Personality Types. Never exclude consideration of a person of a different Personality Type just for not fitting this table, because most of the rows below have many successful exceptions.
For positions requiring: Desirable 
Type Elements:
patience with repetitive, routine work – S – –
patience with routine work conducted alone I S – –
patience with routine work conducted with people E S F –
patience and timeliness with routine work conducted with people E S F J
creativity in management – N – – 
creative advertising, e.g., for art directors, often – N F –
broad bandwidth management ability,
i.e., ability to handle many matters concurrently
– – – P
timeliness – – – J
depth in people skills, e.g., for school counselors and nurses – – F –
detached and logic thinking, e.g., for many lawyers and financial managers – – T –
drive to climb the corporate ladder – – T J
bookkeeping and low-level accounting, packing and shipping. 
Also stabilizing managers
– S T J
top management skills, except in the fastest changing environments (valid for many companies, but not all) – N T J
top management skills in fast-changing environments
(valid for many companies)
– N T P
fast change management – N T J
change management. Also most successful entrepreneurs – N T –
logistics manager in a big company – N T J
marketing or research and development  – N T –
machinery maintenance – S T –
sales E S F – 
sales management – N T –
computer programming I S T J
information systems engineering – N T J
willingness to work autonomously on long trips alone I – – –
many but not all positions in law and finance – N T –
tourist guides and concierges E – F –

Notice that anyone of the eight letters is desirable in some jobs.

Whereas the preceding table can be used for seeking strengths of certain Personality Types, the following table will warn about some possible weaknesses of candidates at anyone of the extremes of the four scales.

Possible weaknesses of candidates at the extreme ends of the four scales
Many Es are less able to work autonomously during extensive travel alone.

Some Es seem too pushy.





Sometimes extreme Is are seen as uncommunicative loners.
Extreme S-persons cannot conceive over-all ideas. Lack creativity. Unimaginative. Some do not prepare for the future.

Some resist change.

Some Ns have no patience with handling details.

Extreme Ns may have lost touch with practicality.


Some lack deep people-skills.

Sometimes too blunt.


Some lack detached, neutral views. Some are "thin-skinned," take comments personally.

Some Js take snap decisions.

Js may have difficulties handling many matters concurrently. May have problems in fast-changing industries. Rigid.

Some Ps procrastinate.

Often late.

Sometimes give an impression of irresponsibility.


Fitting jobs and personality types to each other, just a few words

I fit people to jobs; but you may have to fit jobs to some people who do not have the best Personality Types for their jobs.

Here are a few sample thoughts about how you can try to overcome some of the weaknesses of a situation of bad fit. The blue letters indicate the personality preferences of the persons. In the next table, consider only those approaches that correspond to the person's Personality Type.
To E

If the job requires long stretches of work alone, can the person be given some additional tasks requiring some daily interaction with people as well?

To I

If the job requires extended, continuous work with people, can it be arranged to have the person get some moments with work alone now and then?

To S

If the job requires new ideas or change-management, imagination or creativity and if the person is a clear S, lacking those abilities, you cannot remedy the situation except through employing an N-person instead for the job.

To N

Try to delegate as much as possible of the routine detail work to someone else.

To T

If the Thinker causes problems among his subordinates, talk to him about imagining himself more often in their shoes and dedicating more time and empathy to them.

To F

Make a strong Feeler aware of how she gets too protective of the people under her and how she can do her job better with a little more detachment.

To J

Ask the person to write down in his calendar each important decision he makes, along with some reminders to himself on future dates to review periodically whether to reverse it.

To P

If the person is procrastinating, make him aware of it, and aware of your expecting some of his decisions to turn out wrong, but none to be late.


How you can determine a person's Personality Type and choose the best way to motivate him/her.

Until recently, the only way to determine Personality Type was through computer or pencil-and-paper testing; but businessmen cannot test 99% of the people they deal with.

Now, you can get a self-training program that will enable you to determine, without testing, not only on which half of each scale a person is, but also where on each half-scale. Knowing those locations will enable you to determine how to motivate any specific person. You will do it with far more nuances than shown in these brief excerpts.

These excerpts do not give you any training toward motivating others. Only the course does that.

You will also learn, from the self-training course, about choosing the best approach for different kinds of motivation, such as in purchasing, in helping a person to work better or accept another position.

The self-training program will take a small part of your time during anything from five weeks to five months, depending on how much you practice it. You can practice your exercises discreetly on some of the persons you deal with in your everyday work during that time. Thus the course takes you away from your regular work as little as possible.


The training course is available for 79 Euros or US$79. If you buy it from us, add 15 Euros or $15 for handling and air mailing each course.  The course is called:

Motivating Different People

The Book is short and direct, only 130 pages. I am proud of having been able to reduce it to so little reading. It is designed for practicing managers with little time.

After completion of your course you should be able to throw away the book and motivate people without using any external aids.

How much effort will be required to learn using my method in your work?

About as much as in learning to use a simple new PC application software package. If you complete the self-training program, how proficient will you become? You will not be able to determine all four letters for all persons you try. A few persons will remain "mysteries" on one of the four scales, and very few persons on more than one. But you will become able to motivate everyone better than before. Guarantee

We think that you will find this training course an invaluable tool in your work. However, if you bought it from us or an authorized reseller, and if you should feel that the course is not worth far more than you paid for it, then you can return the course with your receipt, within 30 days of purchase, to where you bought it. Attaching your card marked "refund requested." You will get a refund at once.

Special quantity pricing is available to accredited universities and well-known management training seminar organizers.

We seek resellers for this course, especially providers of management courses.

In conclusion

The differences among personalities enrich our world. If you view Personality Type systematically on scales as described in our course, Motivating Different People, this will enhance your understanding of people of all personality types.

You will view persons in an orderly, insightful manner.

Looking over your clear "map" of where a person is on the four scales, you will understand his or her behavior and you will know right away how to motivate him or her. — Just like a map helps you find your way in a new city.

Toward the end of your self-training, you will discover many fascinating aspects about people, that will reveal new vistas for you, far beyond those I have described.

A perceptive observer of people

A perceptive observer of people is not necessarily a person who was born with great perceptive abilities. It could be a person who is interested in people's differences, a person who has a system to determine and remember their differences.

It could be you.

Gunnar Beeth


If you wish to print a form for ordering, see below.
Order to 
Gunnar Beeth, IMACONSULT
Fagerhult 120
SE-430 63 Hindås, Sweden
Fax: To be completed shortly
E-mail: beeth@imaconsult.be
Phone: + 46 - 70- 241 59 81

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Unit price,  79 Euros or US$79.-
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